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Comparative analysis and conceptual explanation of wiring harness waterproof level

Waterproof Electrical Connector 1.0mm²  18 AWG Wire Harness
Wire harness waterproofing is a necessary content in wire harness work.
Once the waterproofing of the wiring harness fails, it is easy to cause various electrical systems to work abnormally, affect the comfort of the vehicle, and even cause a great safety risk. After the design is completed, a waterproof experiment should be carried out to check the reliability of the waterproof design. Now I will briefly introduce the definition and test method of the waterproof level of automobile wiring harness.


Our common way of expression is IPXX, IP and the two digits behind have a certain meaning. The IP (INGRESS PROTECTION) protection level system is drafted by the IEC, which classifies electrical appliances according to their dust-proof and moisture-proof characteristics. The IP protection level is composed of two numbers. The first number indicates the level of protection against dust and intrusion of foreign objects (the foreign objects referred to here include tools, human fingers, etc., must not touch the live parts of the appliance. To avoid electric shock). The second number indicates the degree of airtightness of the electrical appliance against moisture and water immersion. The larger the number, the higher the degree of protection. The protection level is usually expressed by two numbers followed by IP, and the numbers are used to clarify the protection level. The first digit indicates the range of the equipment against dust, or the degree to which people are protected from hazards in a sealed environment. Represents the level of preventing solid foreign objects from entering, the highest level is 6; The second digit indicates how waterproof the device is. Represents the level of preventing water ingress, the highest level is 8. For example, the protection class of the motor is IP65. The level of protection against contact with electrical equipment and foreign objects (the first number) The level of protection against water for electrical equipment (the second number).

custom Waterproof Circuit ATC, ATO Fuse Box Holder Wire Harness
IP dust-proof rating (the first X indicates) 0:
No protection level: 1: Prevent the intrusion of large solids.
2: Prevent the intrusion of medium-sized solids.
3: Prevent small solids from entering and intruding.
4: Prevent the entry of solid objects larger than 1mm.
5: Prevent the accumulation of harmful dust.
6: Completely prevent dust from entering because the general wiring harness still has high requirements for dust prevention, we default to 6. This is why we often use IP6X to indicate the waterproof level of the wiring harness in the reports or drawings on the supplier.

IP waterproof rating range: the waterproof test includes the second characteristic number from 1 to 8, that is, the protection rating code is IPX1 to IPX8.

IP protection grade waterproof

(1) IPX1 method name:
Vertical drip test, sample placement of drip test device: Place the sample on the rotating sample table at 1r/min according to the normal working position of the sample. The distance from the top of the sample to the drip opening is not more than 200mm. Test conditions:
The dripping volume is 1.0±0.5mm/min
Duration: 10 min

(2) IPX2 method name:
Tilt 15° drip test, drip test device sample placement: Make one surface of the sample form a 15° angle with the vertical, and the distance from the top of the sample to the drip opening is not more than 200mm. After testing one side each time, change the other side four times.
Test conditions: the dripping volume is 3.0±0.5 mm/min
Duration: 4×2.5 min (10 min in total)

(3)IPX3
Method name:
Water spray test test method: a. Swing tube type water splashing test device sample placement: select a swing tube with an appropriate radius so that the height of the sample table is at the position of the diameter of the swing tube, and place the sample on the sample table so that the distance from the top to the sample nozzle Not more than 200mm, the sample table does not rotate.
Test condition: The water flow rate is calculated according to the number of spray holes of the swing pipe, and each hole is 0.07 L/min. When spraying water, spray water from the spray holes in the 60° arc on both sides of the midpoint of the pendulum tube to the sample. The test sample is placed in the center of the semicircle of the pendulum tube. The pendulum tube swings 60° on both sides of the vertical, a total of 120°.
Each swing (2×120°) is about 4s. Test time: continuous watering for 10 minb.
Sprinkler-type water spray test equipment: Hand-held water spray test device Sample placement: Make the parallel distance between the test top and the hand-held sprinkler nozzle between 300mm and 500mm.
Test conditions: A baffle with a counterweight should be installed during the test, and the water flow rate is 10 L/min
Test time: Calculated according to the surface area of the tested sample shell, 1 min per square meter (excluding installation area), at least 5 min


Waterproof IPX8  rating of wiring harness
(4) IPX4 method name:
Splash test test method: a. Swing tube type splash water test equipment and sample placement: the same as the above IPX 3 paragraph a;
Test conditions: Except for the conditions mentioned later, it is the same as the above IPX 3 paragraph a;
The spray area is the water spray from the spray holes in the 90° arcs on both sides of the midpoint of the pendulum tube toward the sample. The test sample is placed in the center of the semicircle of the pendulum tube.
The pendulum tube swings 180° on both sides of the vertical, a total of about 360°.
Each swing (2×360°) about 12s test time: the same as the above IPX 3 paragraph a (ie 10 min).
b. Sprinkler type splash test equipment and sample placement: the same as the above IPX 3 item b;
Test conditions: Remove the baffle with counterweight installed on the equipment, and the rest are the same as the above IPX 3 item b;
Test time: Same as the above IPX 3 item b, that is, calculated based on the surface area of the tested sample shell, 1 min per square meter (not including the installation area) at least 5 min

(5) IPX5 method name: Water spray test test equipment:
The inner diameter of the spray nozzle of the nozzle is 6.3mm. Test conditions: Make the distance between the test sample and the spray nozzle 2.5m ~ 3m, and the water flow rate is 12.5 L/min (750 L/h)
Test time: Calculated according to the surface area of the tested sample shell, 1 min per square meter (not including the installation area) at least 3 min

(6) IPX6 method name:
Strong water spray test; test equipment: the inner diameter of the nozzle of the nozzle is 12.5 mm. Test conditions: Make the distance between the test sample and the water nozzle 2.5m ~ 3m, and the water flow rate is 100 L/min (6000 L/h)
Test time: Calculated according to the surface area of the tested sample shell, 1 min per square meter (not including the installation area) at least 3 min

(7) IPX7 method name:
Test equipment and test conditions for short-term immersion test: Immersion tank. The size should be such that the distance from the bottom of the sample to the water surface is at least 1m after the sample is placed in the immersion tank. The distance from the top of the sample to the water surface is at least 0.15m Test time: 30 min


(8) IPX8
Method name: continuous diving test;
Test equipment, test conditions and test time: It is agreed between the supply and demand (seller) and the severity of it should be higher than IPX 7.
Note: In addition, many outdoor electronic products also emphasize floating ability.

(9) 0IPX9 method name: high pressure injection test
 Test equipment: nozzle nozzle test equipment: nozzle nozzle inner diameter is 12.5 mm ; Test conditions: spray angle: 0°, 30°, 60°, 90° (4 positions); Number of spray holes: 4 ; Rotation speed of sample stage: 5 ±1 r.p.m; The distance is 100 ~150mm, each position is 30 14~16 L/ min, the spray pressure is 8000~10000kPa , and the water temperature is 80±5℃. Test time: 30 seconds×4 total 120 seconds per position.
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